The text has intention to show way of practical usage of M hypothesis heritage. This should be also a proof that M hypothesis is correct one instead of N hypothesis. We also should keep in mind that N hypothesis offers much more advance devices because it deals with one-end forces. N hypothesis offers possibilities of perpetuum-mobile, propulsion without reaction, one end force, etc. However, nobody built such device till now although it has been officially accepted theory of electromagnetism for last two centuries. The N hypothesis theory led us to theory of relativity, the most spectacular theory in contemporary theory and the first Einstein postulate is based on Faradays description of homopolar engine.



N hypothesis seriously violates laws of energy and angular momentum conservations. This is obvious in the following device:

Fig. 1

The device does not have stator and consequently it does not have prop for a rotor. So, in regards with N hypothesis there is a force with only one end. And this directly violates law of angular conservation and also the law energy conservation.
Regarding presumption given by Andrija Radović and Guala Jorge Valverde that influence of velocity of generated potential in homopolar generator is canceled by opposite influence of outer part of electric circuit. Gaula Jorge Valverde formalized this presumption by appropriate mathematical derivation.
But, we are able to construct device with confined magnetic field that prevents exposition of outer part of electric circuit to magnetic field. In the case we should have only direct action of a magnet to a rod and reaction of a rod to a magnet as it is shown on the following picture:

Fig. 2

Only part CAB of electric circuit is exposed to confined magnetic, but only part AB on a rod is able to produce angular force momentum of a rigid electric contour. Contour is able to perform limited rotation around CA axe. When the contour is fixed then C permanent magnet should attempt to rotate in contra direction in regards with reaction of probe to magnet. This should be an ultimate proof that M hypothesis is valid one and that Faraday failed because he did not use confined magnetic field.
Further development of above machine leads us to the following device (proposed by Andrija Radović):

Fig. 3

There is a magnetic section able to free rotate around CA direction. N pole's magnetic lines are captured and confined by the rest of magnet and its S pole acts to a rod on its part AB. Consequently rod also reactively acts to the magnet and should cause its rotation. Now, we can optimize upper device by multiplication of electric circuit's contour on the following way:

Fig. 4

In case of a permanent magnet left coil is unnecessary and right one is actually multiplied rod from previous motor. By the multiplication we can reduce magnitude of electric current needed to drive the motor multiplying the reactive influence of a rods to permanent magnet that is shaped as gear. Additional gear is not a magnet and its role is only to transmit rotation outside the device.
The device has one extraordinary advantage over others DC motors because it uses constant electric current and it does not have brushes. There is no inductive resistance that occurs in ordinary DC machines because commutator, i.e. brushes changes direction of DC current in the rotor's coil. Such AC current has inductive resistance in the coil and this limits the upper speed of the device. The motor from above picture does not have such limitation and its angular speed is limited by driving potential only.


On unhappy above device does not work although demonstrative device from fig. 2 works just as it has been expected – it produces declination of massive C magnet. We are now waiting on independent experimental results of repeated experiment from other independent laboratory because these results are contradictory.
The final text explaining phenomena experienced by exposed devices will be written by Andrija Radovic´ and Jorge Guala Valverde when results of repeated experiments by another independent laboratory is received.

Author of this article and all devices is Andrija S. Radović, © Andrija Radovic´, all rights reserved. The parts or whole article can not be published without author's prior agreement and without author's name below text.

Press the following button to download the article in the PDF format:


Dipl. Ing. Andrija S. Radović
Tel: +381 64 1404075